SELECTED GENEALOGICAL REFERENCES
Baraga, F. 1853. Dictionary of the Otchipwe Language. Minnesota Historical Society Press Reprint, 1992.
Bear Dodem: Ahnishinahbæótjibway oral history, from Bah-wah-we-nind to Wub-e-ke-niew, 1932-5; translated by Wub-e-ke-niew from the Ahnishinahbæótjibway 1985-6.
Beaulieu, Clement H. c.1935. 11 X 16 Genealogical chart in personal files of C.A.F.
Beaulieu, Clement H. c.1935. Genealogical papers, identified by V. Rogers as being from the Minnesota Historical society; WELSA files. Copies of most are also in Alan Woolworth's personal files.
Beltrami County. 1900-1950. Death Records, Death Books A-G. Transcriptions of tape-recorded reading of original documents at Beltrami County Courthouse, Bemidji, Minnesota, some re-checked against the originals.
Beltrami County. 1928. Birth Records. Photostatic copies of certified copies of original documents at Beltrami County Courthouse, Bemidji, Minnesota. Most as personal papers belonging to individuals at Lac Rouge.
Canadian Government. Early 1900's. Annuity Paylists. Administrative Support Services, Special and Administrative Services Division, Indian and Eskimo Affairs; and Registrar, Indian and Northern Affairs.
Canadian Government. Descendants Chart. Program Reference Centre, Program Services, Indian and Inuit Affairs.
Canadian. Office of Indian and Northern Affairs. Early 1900's. Extracts from Indian Paylists. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A OH4.
Carlisle Indian School. early 1900's. The Red Man. Periodical. Minnesota Historical Society Archives.
Chippeway Herald, The. Periodical, early 1900's. Published at White Earth, Minnesota, archived by the Minnesota Historical Society.
Clearwater County, Vital Statistics, Clerk of Courts. 1900-1940. Death Records.
Gates, C. 1968. Five Fur Traders of the Northwest. Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul.
Genealogical Society of Utah. Red Lake Indian Agency, Red Lake Minnesota, Bureau of Indian Affairs, AMID 5-001, Roll 140, Microfilm #1021944 V+ *10219446009092*. [Death Records].
Gridley, M. 1936. Indians of Today. Indian Council Fire. Chicago, 1936.
Half-Breeds of Pembina. 1849. Memorial from the Half-Breeds of Pembina, to his Excellency, Alexander Ramsey, Governor of Minnesota Territory. Document held at the Minnesota Historical Society.
Harpole, P.C. and Nagle, M.D., editors. 1972. Minnesota Territorial Census, 1850. Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul.
Hill, E. 1965. Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Volumes I and II, (Record Group 75). Washington, D.C.
-----. 1981. Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States relating to American Indians. Washington, D.C.
Hudson's Bay Company. c.1986-1992. Photostatic copies of archival documents. Personal files of D.M. and others.
Kirkham, E.K. Our [sic] Native Americans and Their Records of Genealogical Value. Everton Publishers, Inc., Logan, Utah, 84321.
Kohl, J. 1860. Kitchi-Gami, Life Among the Lake Superior Ojibway. 1985 republication by the Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul.
Landes, R. 1937. Ojibwa Sociology. Columbia.
Latter-Day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of. 1988-91 edition. Ancestral File. (CD-rom genealogical database).
Latter Day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of. International Genealogical Index. CD-rom database.
Meyer, M. "We Can Not Get a Living as We Used to": Dispossession and the White Earth Anishinaabeg [sic], 1889-1920, Ph.D. Thesis.
Minnesota Genealogical Society, Northwest Territory Canadian and French Heritage Center. Cousins et cousines. Newsletter.
Minnesota Historical Society Press. 1989. Genealogical Resources of the Minnesota Historical Society, A Guide. St. Paul.
Minnesota Historical Society. Microfilm M-390, U.S. Office of Indian Affairs, Chippewa Annuity Rolls, 1841-1907, Rolls 3 and 5. St. Paul.
-----. Microfilm M-533, Roll 1. St. Anne's Parish, Michilimackinac, Parish Register. St. Paul
-----. Microfilm MN-107, White Earth, Minn., St. Columbia Parish Papers. Praish [sic] Register, 1853-1933. St. Paul.
Minnesota Territory. 1850. Census. Photostatic reproductions of microfilms of originals held by the Bemidji Public Library.
Mortenson, D. c.1995. Compiled Genealogy of the Leith and Spence families. Manuscript.
National Archives and Records Administration. 1975. 1790-1890 Federal Population Censuses on Microfilm. Washington, D.C.
-----. 1983. 1910 Federal Population Census on Microfilm. Washington, D.C.
-----. 1984. Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications, American Indians. Washington, D.C.
-----. 1987. Getting Started - Beginning Your Genealogical Research in the National Archives in Washington. Washington, D.C.
------. Microfilm Series 233, Rolls 70 and 71, Indian Scouts, 1866-1874 and Indian Scouts, 1878-81 and 1914. Washington, D.C.
NiiSka, C. and Wub-e-ke-niew. 1996. Chippewa and Ahnishinahbæótjibway genealogies. (Computer Database).
Oral History [principal informants for genealogies referenced herein, and for background information for present paper]:
F.B.: Ahnishinahbæótjibway elder of the Bear Dodem, who spent his "formative years" with his paternal grandfather, born in the 1850's and native speaker of Ahnishinahbæótjibway. Intensive collaboration, 1983-present. F.B. has an encyclopedic oral-history knowledge of the Lac Rouge Métis, Indian and Ahnishinahbæótjibway genealogy, which is largely corroborated by documentary materials (the patterns of variation between his knowledge and the official documents relate mostly to claims of "legitimacy").
I.B.: Métis elder and historian, deceased, whose maternal grandmother was Ahnishinahbæótjibway and whose paternal uncle was heavily involved in 1934 Indian Reorganization Act politics at White Earth. Conversational speaker of Chippewa. She was a serious student and published author of Chippewa oral history and traditions.
S.H.: Métis elder, deceased, who provided background information on the Métis culture while presenting herself as a "fullblood Indian" and genealogical disinformation. Mother of former Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
R.P.: Elder of the Wolf Dodem. Near-daily sharing of archival documents and discussions of Lac Rouge history and genealogy, 1986-1995.
V.R.: Genealogist, now deceased, formerly employed by the B.I.A. in the White Earth Land Settlement Act office and, prior to that, by the Minnesota Historical Society. Great depth of knowledge of French Métis genealogies, and an interest in "Indian Chiefs." Generously shared raw genealogical data, transcriptions of rare documents, and manuscripts of compiled genealogies. She honored the privacy of the people whose records she was compiling by sharing information only on individuals born before 1900.
D.S.: Métis elder who became avidly enthused about genealogy after reviewing some of our archival documents; a maternal relative of my husband and family friend. Conversational speaker of Chippewa; provided translations and extensive discussion of genealogical archival materials and oral history.
R.S.: Ahnishinahbæótjibway elder of the Kingfisher Dodem, a serious Christian of a family which survived by nineteenth-century Christianization. Fluent speaker of Chippewa, understands Ahnishinahbæótjibway--helped translate some Chippewa names. Episodic, 1986-1985.
M.T.: Ahnishinahbæótjibway elder of the Bullhead Dodem, now deceased. Fluent native speaker of Ahnishinahbæótjibway. Most of the material from M.T. was tape-recorded conversations with one of his Ahnishinahbæótjibway relatives, in his native language, when I was not present.
G.W.: Ahnishinahbæótjibway elder, now deceased and without descendants, who provided some of early key insights into the Ahnishinahbæótjibway perspective, 1983-1985.
J.W.: Métis elder and family friend.
Pierz, F. c.1850-1860. Register Baptisatorum ... in Missine Parochiali Crowwing at Filialbus Proseme ... per me Francis Pierz. V. Roger's transcription of original in what she described as "Catholic Archives."
Pioneer, The. 1986-1996. Obituaries and other community information. Daily (except Saturday) newspaper of Bemidji, Minnesota.
Pope, W. 1988. Tracing Your Ancestors in Minnesota, A Guide to the Sources. Minnesota Family Trees, 718 Sims Avenue, St. Paul.
Powell, R.J. c.1909-1920. Papers. Documents at the Minnesota Historical Society, photostatic copies of documents at the WELSA office and at the Historical Society in Little Falls, Minnesota, and Microfilm Series M-455, published by the Minnesota Historical Society.
Red Lake I.R.A. Tribal Council. c. 1988. "Names Received from Red Lake Residents Regarding Buriels [sic] On The East Side of The Catholic Cemetary [sic]." Red Lake Tribal Archives. Photostatic copy.
Red Lake News. 1915-1920. Reproduced on microfilm by the Minnesota Historical Society as Red Lake NEWS, Jan 1, 1915 - Mar 1920.
Rogers, V. 1894. The Taking of the White Earth Reservation. Manuscript.
-----. before 1985, some 1985-1992 material. Indian Genealogical Index. Photostatic copies of raw genealogical data from her personal files, and 3 rolls of uncatalogued 8mm microfilm at the Minnesota Historical Society.
-----. c. 1985c. List of "Chippewa Treaty Signers." Manuscript.
-----. c. 1988. Flat Mouth Genealogy. Manuscript genealogy of the descendants of "Chief" Flat Mouth and their families.
-----. c.1992. Warren Family Genealogy. Handwritten manuscript of the Warren families of White Earth and associated Indian reservations.
-----. c. 1985a. Ay-ash-wash Genealogy. Manuscript genealogy of the descendants of Ay-ash-wash.
-----. c. 1985b. Broken Tooth Genealogy. Manuscript genealogy of the descendants of "Chief" Broken Tooth and their families.
Roman Catholic Church. 1950's. Redlake Benedictine. Red Lake.
Satterlee, G.M. 1985. Satterlee Genealogy, Volume III. Unpaginated and variously paginated, privately semi-published genealogy. Personal files of Robert L. Satterlee.
Schoolcraft, H. 1848. The Indian in his Wigwam. Derby & Hewson, Buffalo.
Schulstad, Marian R. July 3, 1980. For the Field Solicitor, to the Minneapolis B.I.A. office on July 3, 1980, regarding the Lake Superior Scrip.
Society of American Indians. early 1900's. The American Indian Magazine, Quarterly Journal of the Society of American Indians. Coperstown, N.Y.
St. Mary's Catholic Mission. 1896-1921. Baptismal Register, Redlake. Photostatic copy of original document.
Thorndale, W. and Dollarhide, W. 1987. Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790 - 1920.
United States Government, Commerce Department. United States Census:
Minnesota: Aitkin County, Becker County, Beltrami County, Cass County, Crow Wing County, Itasca County, Morrison County, Red Lake Indian Reservation and White Earth Indian Reservation.
Wisconsin: St. Croix, 1840.
United States Congress. 42nd Congress, 2nd Session, House of Representatives, Executive Document No. 193, Chippewa Half-Breeds of Lake Superior. Washington, D.C.
-----. 50th Congress, Second session. 1888-9. G.P.O. Serial No. 2624, Senate Reports, Vol. 6, Doc. No. 271, "Indian Traders, Chippewa Timber Contracts," and list of Wisconsin allotments.
-----. March 2, 1889. Senate Report to Accompany Bills 2522, 2582 and 2583, Chippewa Timber Contracts and Allotments of Land. Washington D.C.
United States Department of the Interior. In the Matter of the Petitions of Charles T. Wright, et.al. for the purification of the White Earth Indian Roll.
United States Government, Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1864-1880. "List of Persons to Whom Scrip was Issued Under Red Lake and Pembina Treaties..." and photostatic copies of Halfbreed Scrip. National Archives, RG 75, Entry 363. Washington, D.C.
-----. August 26, 1867. Letter from "Office United States Indian Agent, Chippewa Agency, Minn." National Archives, RG 75.
-----. 1900-1995. Agency records held at the Red Lake Agency Office and at the Leech Lake Agency Office, including some probate records for Red Lake. Records obtained at Cass Lake, Minnesota.
-----. March 10, 1902. Red Lake Land Cession Document. Photostatic copy of document in National Archives, in personal files of Greg Chester.
-----. c. 1911. "Lists Showing the Degree of Indian Blood of Certain Persons Holding Land Upon the White Earth Reservation ... Persons ... who are of 4/4 Indian blood." [Hinton Roll]. G.P.O., Washington, D.C.
-----, Red Lake Agency. 1915-1932. Death Certificates Filed with the State [of Minnesota]. L.D.S. Film #1021944.
-----. c.1936. Minnesota Chippewa Tribe Base Rolls. Former White Earth Tribal Officer Floyd Sweet's manuscript copy in the personal files of Lowell Bellanger. Photostatic copy in possession of author.
-----, Red Lake Agency. Affidavits of Relationship. Reproduced by the Genealogical Society of Utah as Microfilm 1204884 V+ * 12048846009094 *.
-----. 1958. Indian Reorganization Act--Tribal Council's "Red Lake Reservation Basic Roll." Photostatic copy of V. Roger's annotated transcription.
-----, Red Lake Agency and Red Lake Tribal Council. 1960-1968. Enrollment resolutions. National Archives, RG 75, Central Classified Files of the B.I.A., and personal papers of former Tribal Councilman A.L.
-----. August 11, 1982. I.R.A. Tribal Council's list of Eligible Resident Voters, Redby District, Run Off Election. Original document in personal files of Adolf Lussier.
-----, Red Lake Agency. 1983. Indian Claims Commission Payroll/1983 Enrollment List. Transcription of B.I.A. computer printout.
-----, White Earth and Leech Lake Agencies. 1885-1990. White Earth Allotments. National Archives RG 75, photostatic copies of various documents in personal files of community members, and photostatic copies of selected WELSA files.
United States Government, Department of Commerce. 1900, 1910. Schedule No. 1. Indian Population - Special Inquires Relating to Indians. Red Lake Indian Reservation.
United States Government, Department of the Interior. 1930-1995. Probate records held by the Office of Hearings and Appeals, Hearings Division, Bishop Whipple Federal Building, One Federal Drive, Room 674, Fort Snelling, Minnesota 55111.
United States Government, Office of Indian Affairs. 1841-1907. Chippewa Annuity Rolls. Microfilm Series M-390, Minnesota Historical Society. The Red Lake Censes are on Rolls 243-245, 418-424 and 649-654.
-----. 1845. Chippewa Census compiled by Indian Agent Schoolcraft. National Archives, RG 75. Washington, D.C.
-----. 1850-59. Chippewa Agency Letters. Published by the National Archives as Microfilm Series 234, Roll 168, Chippewa Agency Letters Received, 1880; Chippewa Agency Emigration 1850-59 and Reserves, 1853-55.
-----. 1885-1938. Indian enrollment records, published as microfilm by the National Archives as Microfilm Series M-595. Washington, D.C.
-----. 1889-1900. Papers of the Minnesota Chippewa Commission, Minnesota Chippewa Commission, and 51st Congress, 1st Session, Executive Document No. 247 (Referring to the Nelson Act of January 14, 1889). Original documents, RG 75, Items 104 and 105 at the National Archives, Washington; microfilm; Congressional document published by the G.P.O. Washington, D.C.
United States Government, White Earth Land Settlement Act Project Office. Genealogical and allotment heirship records. Cass Lake, Minnesota.
United States Government, White Earth Land Settlement Act Office. c.1992. Red Lake Genealogy Sheets, WELSA case files.
United States Government. 1821-65. Unratified Treaties. Reproduced by the National Archives as Microfilm T-494, Roll 8, Unratified Treaties, 1821-65. Washington, D.C.
United States Government. 1863-1868. Treaty Documents relating to the 1863 Red Lake and Pembina Treaty. Photostatic and microfilm copies. National Archives.
United States Government. 1864-1880. "Treaty of April 12, 1864, Red Lake and Pembina Half-Breeds." Scrip Stubs. Photographic copies made by author of documents at the National Archives, RG 75, Entry 364. Washington, D.C.
Vandersluis, C. 1974. Mainly Logging, including: Thoughts While Strolling, E. Bourgeois; Never a Dull Moment, J. Morrison, Jr., and Reminiscences of a Cruiser, C. Wight. Beltrami County Historical Society.
Verhagen, L. c.1990. Spence Family Genealogy. Photostatic copy of manuscript pages.
Warren, W. 1885. History of the Ojibway [sic] People. Posthumously published; Minnesota Historical Society Reprint.
Westin, J. 1977. The Official Handbook for Heritage Hunters, Finding Your Roots. Ballantine.
White, B. 1977. The Fur Trade in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul.